Society can be defined as “a community, nation, or broad grouping of people having common traditions, institutions, and collective activities and interests. To understand the full impact of computers on society, we will first have to understand the meaning of 'computer'. A Computer does not necessarily mean a monitor, keyboard, mouse and a CPU. A computer is any machine or device that can compute and execute instructions given to it in the form of programs. So technically, even a cell phone is a computer. And so are desktops, laptops, tablet PCs and PDAs.

Anything that can perform a series of operations on its own is a computer. Almost everything we know in today’s society is either operated or made by computers. Cars and jets were designed on computers, traffic signals are operated by computers, most medical equipment use computers and even space exploration was started with computers. Most of the jobs today require the use of computers. These 'mechanical brains' made a huge impact on our society. It would be hard if we didn't have the computer around. This gives us an idea as to how wide and deep the role of computers is in our lives and society on a whole.

We need a computer for virtually every thing. In the subsequent paragraphs we will see the various uses of computers in society in more detail. The computer has given us access to countless sources of knowledge; the whole world has literally opened up to us (globalization). We are able to explore the daily life in a foreign country with the click of a mouse, something that was thought impossible fifty years ago. The happenings of the world are right at our fingertips; we can find out what's happening in any foreign related news in just a few seconds.

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The computer is used to entertain, commutate and motivate, there are sites that are available to teach you basically anything step by step. Computers have had a very powerful effect on society; which most perceived as positive. Society have come a very long way with computers; we've discovered how we can live our lives longer, thanks to computer assisted medical advances, and more enjoyable thanks to the empowering knowledge computers are able to share. As a result of the overwhelming advantages of the computer in society the aim of this paper is to inform its readers of some of these: as to mention all its advantages would be impossible.

One of the most integral areas of society that is affected by computer is that of communication. All sectors of society, nations, race, religion or creed are all dominated by information and with the help of computers, terrestrial and satellite communication; people from one corner of the world can interact with people from another corner through telephones, mobiles, internet etc. The world has suddenly become a smaller place. With this diffusion of information, people are able to express their ideas, views and also make new contacts which may further help in increasing job opportunities globally (networking).

This provides a great scope for ordinary humans to raise their level of knowledge and intelligence. Some of the ways in which computer impacts and or enhance this industry are with the use of the internet i. e. emails (used to gather and disseminate information), video conferencing, teleconferencing, telephones (mobile) faxes, etc. The science or medical field is one of the areas most affected by computers. One of the most important advantages of computers in this field is in the area of research and development. The high end machines used for diagnosis and cure of many diseases are nothing but computers.

For example, the Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), CT scan, ultrasound devices are amongst the many uses of computers in hospitals. Even many surgical procedures, known as laparoscopic surgeries, need the help of computers. Web conferencing is another way in which computers affects medicine in simple terms web conferencing can be defined as conferencing or discussions via the internet. This assists medical practitioners to treat people remotely. The satellites, the telescopes and almost all the research tools make use of computers in one way or another.

The computer is also used to store the information gathered. There is great potential for computer networks to deliver up-to-date research to health-care practitioners. For a fee, the most recent medical literature can be retrieved electronically by practitioners in remote areas, fostering continuing education and improved diagnoses. Teleconferencing equipment can allow specialists to provide consultations and to guide surgical procedures from a distance. The internet also offers numerous sites that provide medical information and advice.

In many respects the dissemination of such information has made people more knowledgeable about their health and more actively engaged in monitoring their own symptoms. Computers also help in curing diseases scientists need the help of computers to find cures for diseases like cancer and STDs. Without the computers help, cures for a lot of diseases wouldn’t have been found since most cures were found with the help of computers. Most computers in the hospital are used to keep data of patience and their status. In pharmacies, the pharmacists use computers to keep a record of what medication to give to a patient and the amount they need.

Without the use of computer pharmacies would have a hard time keeping track with what medications to give to patience and keep records of their medical history. Computers also keep track of equipment placement and status as well. Calculations and simulations are other uses of computer in medicine. Calculators in medicine refer to software that is available to make medical and nursing g calculations. These calculators help with medication dosing and determining pregnancy due dates. Software that includes laboratory values and vaccination schedules is also available.

Simulations may cover a task such as suturing a hand injury. Students view laboratory slides and listen to heart sounds on computers. Many practice tests are available online to evaluate yourself. However, the most impressive application incorporates peripherals that can record data about a patient, such as ultrasound imaging devices or microscopes fitted with digital cameras these can allow diagnosis itself to take place across vast distances. Computers also play a huge role in the education sector. Computer in the field of education are infinite. The Internet is a huge source of information.

There are online universities that deliver online degrees and distance learning is spreading far and wide. Many schools and colleges have started making use of audio-visual ways of imparting knowledge. A horde of tools used by students are operated by computer. For instance, a MS word, Excel, Power Point etc. And this use of computers in education is only increasing. Students could also type their essays and reports on what's called a word-processing program. This program allows one to type anything out from a school essay to business papers. Presentations can be enhanced with the use of images on the computer.

Presently, typing out essays and reports are mandatory, especially in high school. Computers help students in any way they need, researching, typing, searching, etc. Teachers use computers as well. They use computers to keep track of grades and type out instruction for their students. Other uses of computer in education include record keeping tasks in that students can keep track of assignments and schedule tasks with calendar software. Note taking is possible on laptop computers. Information storage and retrieval is another computer use in education.

Students can access textbooks online. Online databases are easily searched for references when writing papers. Citations and even full-text articles can be downloaded to a personal computer. Software is available to correctly format bibliographic citations in papers. There is also classroom and beyond these are faculties that store presentations on personal computers and project them in classrooms. Libraries and faculty members coordinate online storage of faculty presentations, required readings and class schedules. These materials are then available to students at any time.

With the use of computer the processes by which educational establishments distribute information have become increasingly diverse, and the effectiveness of the process has also improved. The distribution of information is not the only concern of educational establishments. For example one of the aims of Universities is to create information. This “creation” is done by research. Computers have enabled researchers to access a wider source of information than previously available through such technologies as the internet (the original Arpa Net being set up primarily to assist research).

The internet and other related technologies such as electronic mail, also enable collaborative projects to be undertaken between geographically distant groups. Computerization has revolutionized the banking industry. The advent of the usage of computers has enormously increased the banking capabilities of the banks and they are able to offer better and wider range of services to their customers. Internet banking, mobile banking, ATMs etc. are all the fruits of computerization of the banking industry. Banks are able to expand at a great rate and offer services to more and more customers because of the use of computers.

The banking sector has transformed itself through the use of computer technology, a transformation that began in the early 1980s with the introduction of automated teller machines (ATMs) which became widespread in Canada in the 1980s. Long line-ups in banks have been replaced by ATMs in every shopping mall and on nearly every corner. Most of the banking operations can be done online, known as internet banking one does not have to visit the bank for virtually anything. One can withdraw or deposit money from ATMs and deposit money in any branch, thanks to the networking made possible by the use of computers .

Further banking conveniences, such as the automatic debit card, which consumers can use to pay for merchandise in retail outlets, or computerized telephone and internet banking services. This has given persons more free time and flexibility when it comes to managing their finances. Such conveniences point to the possibility of computer technology bringing about a cashless society wherein all financial transactions can be carried out through the use of smart cards (plastic cards programmed to record a person's complete financial profile). The commercial or business sector is another area that have also benefited from computer.

Earlier, before computers were introduced in businesses, there were multiple devices in offices such as fax machines, typewriters, tele fax equipment, stenography equipment and filing cabinets that were used extensively. Computers successfully have also been used to replace typewriters filing cabinets replaced these office tools, the entire office have become ‘dematerialized’ that is files and data existed electronically on the computer instead of having a physical existence Another important use of computers in business is the machines ability to act as a clever accountant.

There are countless accounting software that can cleverly record entries and plan finances. This financial software basically increases the accuracy of the financial accounting process. There are also several internet banking facilities that have come into use of recent. Such facilities enable people to conduct transactions from their offices, saving them a journey to the bank. The biggest impact of information technology on business was observed in the field of communication.

The internet and the concept of e-mails has benefited businesses as information, letters, technical drawings, applications and almost all the various types of communication can be transmitted from person to person, at distant locations, in a matter of few minutes. The internet also helps in communication to the masses. Stock investors, Forex traders, media companies, financial planners and company owners rely solely on the World Wide Web for instant updates from over the world. Another important use of computers in business is the technical software.

Technical software is used by countless people such as engineers, architects, logistics personnel, etc. This technical software is user friendly, accurate, convenient and fast. The business sector has improved on fronts such as security, ease of use, etc. with the help of computers. The fact is, using computers in today's business has enhanced the performance of employees and the business on a whole. Businesses also use computers for keeping track of accounts, money, or items that they need.

One may notice business people using computers a lot, especially the laptop computers, portable computers that can be taken to your work area. Persons may be seen using things like pie-charts and graphs when they present information to other business people in meetings. Most of those charts were made by computers. The business field uses the computers a lot for their companies and organizations. Computer use can also enable the business to highlight areas where they are not making the most use of their resources. The use of computers can also increase the businesses income through advertising in the various available forums.

Advances in information technology using computers over the last thirty years have lead to the television for example being more widely used today than thirty years ago (e. g. the introduction of transistor based televisions reduced costs while increasing reliability. Communication in business is improved through the use of the intranet and Internet. The intranet is an internal system of computer communication while the internet can be used to communicate with customers; suppliers and others in the outside world (through websites and email). Workers can work away from the office using mobile technology such as phones, laptops and modems.

Computers can be used to process, analyse and store vast amounts of data to give the business more quality information. Computers also assist with E-commerce; this is the ability of businesses to trade with the world via websites. This means that there is a larger market and the business is now open 24 hours a day. This has provided opportunities for businesses that could only trade locally to now expand the size of the market (e. g. Amazon as world wide book and CD sellers). Customers can also shop around for the best deals for new products. The internet can also be useful for recruitment purposes.

Job vacancies can be advertised and targeted to the right audience, often costing less than print alternatives e. g. e-teach sends free emails every week detailing teachers posts to subscribers Computer also has an impact on the government. With the use of information technology the government have improved their “service” to their citizens. Advances in database technology for example have enabled the governments of various countries to collate and monitor statistical information that they can use to combat fraud, manage the economy in a more informed way and assist with the calculation and tabulation of taxes.

It has also had a major impact on the defence capabilities of governments. This covers both a government’s capability towards war and their intelligence gathering capability. Advances in weapons technology and weapons design have increased the effectiveness of various governments’ armed forces. For example it would have been impossible to design aeroplanes such as the B2 Bomber if it were not for the advances made in information technology. The B2 bomber relies on a “continuous curvature” design to minimise radar signature.

It would have been impossible to design or build this machine without the development of computer modelling techniques. Computers have also had a major impact on a government’s intelligence agencies. Encryption of sensitive information has enabled governments to obtain added security. However attempting to decrypt information is also a major area of work for those employed by the government. Then there’s politics; given that meetings between high level officials tend to resemble those between executives in the private sector, this may not be much of revelation.

However, it is one of the most common and effective uses of the technology, saving millions in public funds. Heads of state and senior politicians can confer on crisis situations in real-time without waiting for travel and without running the risk of travelling to unstable regions. Given that few international discussions involve just one or two parties, this application has arguably had the biggest effect on the wider world - The security sector has also benefited from the emergence of computer in that high end computer devices have ensured that justice is more effective.

CCTV cameras and other computer operated security systems have reduced the amount of crime. And if it still happens there are many ways to track down the criminal in no time. Forensic science employs computers for many of its operations related to investigations. With its use more criminal cases have been solved and criminals caught. The field of entertainment has been revolutionized by computers. Animation, graphic image manipulation etc has made the entertainment experience hundred times better. Computer gaming is achieving new landmarks in terms of technology. Movie making, editing, music composition all needs computers.

Most of the people out there like science fiction or action movies these were mostly made by computers. Most of the movies today use computer graphics to make things more realistic but not real. Computer graphics are mostly used on spaceships, aliens, monsters, and special effects. Not only movies used computer animations and graphics games on the latest game consoles like the PC, Play station and Nintendo 64 used the computers to make the coolest games ever. Of course all of you heard of the game Final Fantasy VII. It was the first Final Fantasy game to have a 3D environment and neat computer animation.

In today’s society computer use graphics and animations to make the coolest games. The environment by itself has also benefited from computer in that there is more information accessible to the public on how to preserve and save it. Greenpeace and the World Wildlife Foundation are both widely spread on the Internet. In this research it has been shown that with computer along with the developments in information technology have made a remarkable impact on the society. Without going into specific detail about individual situations, it has been shown that that impact has been four fold: storage, manipulation, distribution, and creation.

There are four areas in which society’s perception of information has changed. As communication and information technologies have been developed, the various elements that makeup society, whether they be individuals or organisations, expect to be able to use computer in ways that were not possible thirty years ago. Society expects to be able to store more than was previously conceived. Society expects to be able to manipulate the computer they have for their benefit, to increase understanding and discover new relationships. Society expects to be able to distribute information quickly, efficiently and cheaply.

In addition it also expects the creation of new information to be facilitated by these new technologies through the use of a computer. As previously stated, with everything good must also come some harm this has been the same with the emergence of computers. Today's society is often too caught up in their careers and goals to enjoy many of the finer points in life, such as nature and their family lives. Children are taught at an early age to rely on computers for stimulation and entertainment; many children would rather watch TV or play video games than play sports or go outside.

This has attributed directly to the growing obesity rates in North America and all over the world. There has been a staggering increase in child obesity rates, a problem which computers are partially responsible for. On the other hand, computers can provide much knowledge of these problems and can help families solve them. Computers also have a negative impact on the environment. Radiation from computers has harmed plants and animals for centuries. Wildlife habitats have been destroyed from computer factories and radio towers.